The following photos were taken by me, at the Yagiyama Zoo in Sendai, Japan
These chimpanzees lived alone in these small cages, with nothing even to play with. In addition, their cages were kept near the front of the zoo, so everyone who entered passed by them. This added an additional stress of noise exposure. The only shade they had was provided by the concrete shelves seen here. They had nowhere to go to escape the heat or the noise.
There were only two gorillas in this pen, both seemed old, and lethargic. They had more shelter than the chimpanzees, but no apparent free access to fresh water.
The macaques had the largest and most stimulating pen in the zoo. But they were still walking on concrete, the plastic webbing apparently put down for traction or protection, I am not sure.
These monkeys had the most tragic situation, kept on leashes in a corner. They were kept out of each others reach as well. They were placed on the floor in a corner in a high traffic area. There was a constant crowd of people towering over them, a high stress situation for a small animal who prefers the height of trees.
These elephants are obviously not primates, but they faced similar conditions at the Zoo. Elephants are also highly intelligent and can suffer the same types of psychological problems as apes.
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